…if the Sun’s Light consisted of but one sort of Rays, there would be but one Colour in the whole World…

–Sir Isaac Newton, Opticks


Everything in our universe emits energy to maintain its existence, things that are direct sources of light like sun/fire/ lava/modern lights/ radium, etc, are actually emitting light as a way of showing the release of energy(heat). As energy can neither be created nor be destroyed in any chemical reaction( First law of thermodynamics/law of conservation of energy).In our solar system, the ultimate source of energy or light( a form of energy) is THE SUN, our star. It emits light in the form of an electromagnetic spectrum. Electromagnetic radiation is described by its frequency (or recurrence) and its power. At the point when the frequency is inside the apparent spectrum from 390 nm to 700 nm, it is known as “noticeable /visible light”. We humans can’t see the whole electromagnetic spectrum just by our eyes.



Earlier, people used to think our eyes produce light rays(Plato) and that’s why we can see things but they got null and void when someone asked why we can’t see in the dark. This is the essence of the extra mission theory of light that would be influential for almost 1000 years until Alhazen(“the father of modern optics”) would conclusively prove it to be wrong.

How we see colors = our eyes see reflected rays from the object ( normal colors/moon etc )or directly the light source when dim (sun in the evening) white color has the highest reflection ability (albedo) and black absorbs all light reflecting almost none

So if we can see something, either it is emitting its own energy or reflecting someone else’s. {To be specific everything(matter) emits energy(blackbody radiation), to maintain the state of matter solid /liquid /gas, etc particle need to be in a constant vibration state if the vibration goes extreme(HIGHER FREQUENCY) they produce heat and photons That’s why a piece of metal visibly glows when we make it very hot. At room temperature, it is producing light at a scope of frequencies, yet practically none in the noticeable light reach. As you make the piece of metal hotter, its blackbody radiation is in the visible light range becomes significant enough that a human eye can detect it.}  Color specifications and their physical properties are related to objects through the frequencies of the light that is reflected from them and their powers. This reflection is administered by the item’s actual properties like light ingestion, outflow spectra, etc. Color is a component comprising of tints, of which there are three properties: shade, chroma or power, and value


Since color is light it is composed of particle-wave duality ( both wave and particle called a photon) which is massless but has momentum( the speed of light in vacuum, 299792458 m/s)


HUMAN EYE AND BIOLOGY-The natural eye is a receptor that responds to light and permits vision. Rod and cone cells in the retina are photoreceptor cells that can distinguish noticeable light and pass on this data to the mind. Eyes signal data is utilized by the cerebrum to evoke the view of shading, shape, profundity, development, and different highlights. The eye is essential for the tactile sensory system. 

  Light waves are sent across the cornea and enter the eye through the understudy. The cornea is the straightforward covering over the eye. It fills in as a boundary between the internal eye and the rest of the world, and it is associated with shining light waves that enter the eye. The pupil is the little opening in the eye through which light passes, and the size of the understudy can change as an element of light levels just as enthusiastic excitement. At the point when light levels are low, the understudy will get widened or extended, to permit all the more light to enter the eye. At the point when light levels are high, the pupil will contract, or decrease, to lessen the measure of light that enters the eye. The pupil’s size is constrained by muscles that are associated with the iris, which is the shaded bit of the eye.

Subsequent to going through the pupil, light crosses the focal point, a bent, straightforward construction that serves to give extra core interest. The focal point is appended to muscles that can change their shape to help in shining light that is reflected from close or far objects. In a typically located individual, the focal point will zero in pictures entirely on a little space in the rear of the eye known as the fovea, which is important for the retina, the light-delicate coating of the eye. The fovea contains thickly stuffed particular photoreceptor cells. These photoreceptor cells, known as cones, are light-identifying cells. The cones are specific sorts of photoreceptors that work best in splendid light conditions. Cones are touchy to intense detail and give colossal spatial goals. They likewise are straightforwardly associated with our capacity to see tone.

Rods and cones are associated (through a few interneurons) with retinal ganglion cells. Axons from the retinal ganglion cells join and exit through the rear of the eye to shape the optic nerve. The optic nerve conveys visual data from the retina to the cerebrum. There is a point in the visual field called the vulnerable side: Even when light from a little item is centered around the vulnerable side, we don’t see it. We are not intentionally mindful of our vulnerable sides for two reasons: First, each eye gets a marginally extraordinary perspective on the visual field; along these lines, the vulnerable sides don’t cover. Second, our visual framework fills in the vulnerable side so that in spite of the fact that we can’t react to visual data that happens in that bit of the visual field, we are additionally not mindful that data is absent.

Like the eyes of different vertebrates, the natural eye’s non-picture framing photosensitive ganglion cells in the retina get light signals which influence change of the size of the student, guideline and concealment of the chemical melatonin, and entrainment of the circadian musicality


. Falcons, birds, and owls 

 . Flying predators have unimaginably sharp vision, which they use to chase prey from the air. Falcons specifically can see around multiple times the extent that people can! 

. Mantis Shrimp 

The natural eye contains three unique cones. These cones permit us to see colors going from red to violet and all shades in the middle. Conversely, the mantis shrimp has sixteen cones! We can’t be certain what colors mantis shrimp see, precisely, yet we realize they have extremely progressed shading acknowledgment capacities. 

. Felines 

As nighttime hunters, felines from the housecat to the lion–have built up the capacity to see well in low light. In the event that you’ve at any point seen a feline’s eyes sparkling at you out of the loop, you’ve seen their great night vision in real life. A vital piece of this is the intelligent layer that felines have in their eyes, which amplifies the measure of light entering the eye. 

. Goats and sheep 

At the point when you consider creatures with extraordinary vision, you most likely envision hunters. What numerous individuals don’t understand is that the even understudies of goats and sheep give them a stunning 330-degree field of vision, which means they can see nearly all that isn’t straightforwardly behind them. As you can envision, this makes it incredibly hard for hunters to sneak up on them! 

. Chameleons 

One of the lone creatures with a more extensive scope of vision than sheep and goats is the chameleon. Chameleons’ eyes can turn far enough to give them the full 360 levels of vision. Past that, every one of the chameleon’s eyes can work freely on the other. The chameleon is equipped for handling two entirely unexpected pictures from each eye simultaneously. 

An amusing green chameleon is present on a branch in the tropical island of Nosy be. Chameleons are endemic of Madagascar where you can discover many types of this reptile. 

. Dragonflies 

 Dragonflies have compound eyes practically huge enough to cover their heads, and subsequently can find every which way simultaneously. They can likewise see bright shadings that people can’t, and are even ready to distinguish the plane of polarization of light.









The optic nerve from each eye consolidates just beneath the cerebrum at a point called the optic chiasm. The optic chiasm is an X-formed design that sits just beneath the cerebral cortex at the front of the mind. At the place of the optic chiasm, data from the privileged visual field (which comes from the two eyes) is shipped off the left half of the cerebrum, and data from the left visual field is shipped off the correct side of the mind. The data about the picture through the eye is sent to the cerebrum along the optic nerve. Various populaces of ganglion cells in the retina send data to the cerebrum through the optic nerve. About 90% of the axons in the optic nerve go to the sidelong geniculate core in the thalamus. These axons begin from the M, P, and K ganglion cells in the retina, see above. This equal handling is significant for reproducing the visual world; each sort of data will go through an alternate course of discernment. Another populace sends data to the unrivaled colliculus in the midbrain, which helps with controlling eye developments (saccades)[30] just as other engine reactions. The last populace of photosensitive ganglion cells, containing melanopsin for photosensitivity, sends data through the retinohypothalamic plot (RHT) to the pretectum (pupillary reflex), to a few designs engaged with the control of circadian rhythms and rest, for example, the suprachiasmatic core (SCN, the natural clock), and to the ventrolateral preoptic core (VLPO, a locale associated with rest regulation). An as of late found part for photoreceptive ganglion cells is that they intercede cognizant and oblivious vision – going about as simple visual brilliance identifiers as demonstrated in rodless coneless eye

The visual cortex is the biggest framework in the human cerebrum and is liable for preparing the visual picture. It lies at the back of the cerebrum, over the cerebellum. The area that gets data straightforwardly from the LGN is known as the essential visual cortex. It makes a base-up saliency guide of the visual field to direct consideration or eye stare to remarkable visual locations, subsequently, the choice of visual info data by consideration begins at V1along the visual pathway. Visual data at that point courses through a cortical order. These zones incorporate V2, V3, V4, and region V5/MT. These auxiliary visual territories measure a wide assortment of visual natives. Neurons in V1 and V2 react specifically to bars of explicit directions or blends of bars. These are accepted to help edge and corner discovery. Also, essential data about shading and movement is prepared here


Color brain science is the investigation of tints as a determinant of human conduct. Color impacts discernments that are not self-evident, like the flavor of food. Tones have characteristics that can cause certain feelings in people. Colors can likewise upgrade the viability of placebos. For models, red or orange pills are for the most part utilized as energizers. What shading means for people may vary contingent upon age, sex, and culture. For example, hetero men will in general report that red outfits improve the female appeal, while hetero females deny any outfit tone affecting that of men. Although shading affiliations can fluctuate logically between societies, the color inclination is to be moderately uniform across sex and race.

 Color influences how individuals see the edibility and kind of food sources and beverages. The color of the actual food, as well as that of everything in the eater’s field of vision, can influence this. For instance, in food stores, bread is regularly sold in bundling enhanced or colored with brilliant or earthy colored tones to advance home heated and broiler newness. Individuals can confuse a cherry seasoned beverage with being lime or lemon enhanced if that drink was a green color. Also, a flavor can be strengthened by a color. 

The color of placebo pills is accounted for to be a factor in their adequacy, with “hot-colored” pills working better as energizers and “cool-colored” pills working better as depressants. This relationship is accepted to be a result of the patient’s assumptions and not an immediate impact of the actual color. Subsequently, these impacts give off an impression of being society subordinate.  Blue light makes individuals feel loose, which has driven nations to add blue streetlamps to diminish self-destruction rates. In 2000, the city of Glasgow introduced blue road lighting in specific areas and hence announced the episodic finding of decreased wrongdoing around there. A railroad organization in Japan introduced blue lighting on its stations in October 2009 with an end goal to diminish the number of self-destruction endeavors, albeit the impact of this procedure has been addressed.

color inclinations are the propensity for an individual or a gathering to lean toward certain colors over others. An ‘ecological valence theory’ (EVT) has been proposed to clarify why individuals have inclinations for various colors. This is the possibility that the inclination for color is controlled by the normal full of feeling reaction to everything the individual partners with the color. Henceforth, positive enthusiastic encounters with a specific color are probably going to build the inclination to build up an inclination for that color and the other way around. Social and social factors likewise factor into this emotional reaction. An investigation in 2011 on the impacts of “school soul” and color inclinations discovered individuals from Berkeley were bound to support the school’s true colors than rival college Stanford. This level of inclination likewise corresponded with their self-revealed level of “school soul”. The color inclination may likewise rely upon surrounding temperature. Individuals who are cold regularly select warm colors like red or yellow, while individuals who are hot kindness cool colors like blue and green. Introverted people are likewise discovered to be more pulled into cool colors, while social butterflies lean toward hotter colors. Sexual orientation has additionally appeared to impact how colors are gotten, with some exploration proposing ladies and men separately incline toward “warm” and “cool” colors. Black, white, and dark, as tones or shades, were demonstrated to be gotten more emphatically by guys than females.

Analyst Andrew J. Elliot tried to check whether the color of an individual’s attire could cause them to show up more explicitly engaging. He discovered hetero people wearing red were altogether bound to draw in heartfelt consideration than ladies wearing some other color. The color didn’t influence hetero ladies’ appraisal of other ladies’ allure. Different investigations have shown men wearing red appeal to hetero women. In opposition to the grown-up affection for blue, in kids yellow is the most preferred color, maybe attributable to its relationship with happiness. However, kids like colors they discover to be lovely and consoling are alterable, while grown-up color inclination is normally effectively influenced. The social foundation has been appeared to affect color affiliations. Studies have shown individuals from a similar district, paying little mind to nationality, will have similar color inclinations. Normal affiliations interfacing colors to a specific feeling may likewise vary cross-culturally. For example, one examination inspected color associations with feeling with members in Germany, Mexico, Poland, Russia, and the United States; tracking down that red was related with outrage and saw as solid and active. However, just Poles related purple with both displeasure and desire while Germans connected envy with yellow. This features how the impact of various societies can possibly change the view of color and its relationship to feeling

Light and color impact how individuals see their environmental factors. Various kinds of light sources influence inside or outer articles by outwardly changing their surface colors. Explicit shades saw under common daylight may fluctuate when seen under the light from a radiant (tungsten) light: lighter colors may give off an impression of being more orange or “earthy” and hazier colors may show up even darker. Light and the color of an item can influence how one sees its situating. Assuming light or shadow, or the color of the item, veils an article’s actual form it can seem, by all accounts, to be molded uniquely in contrast to reality. Objects under a uniform light source will advance a better impression of three-dimensional shape. The color of an item may influence whether it is by all accounts moving. Specifically, the directions of articles under a light source whose force fluctuates with space are harder to decide than indistinguishable items under a uniform light source. This might actually be deciphered as obstruction among movement and color insight, the two of which are more troublesome under factor lighting. 

Carl Jung is most noticeably connected with the spearheading phases of color brain research. Jung was generally intrigued by colors’ properties and implications, just as in workmanship’s potential as an apparatus for psychotherapy. His investigations in and compositions on color imagery cover an expansive scope of subjects, from mandalas to crafted by Picasso to the close widespread power of the color gold, the lattermost of which, as per Charles A. Riley II, “communicates … the pinnacle of otherworldliness, and intuition”. In seeking after his investigations of color utilization and impacts across societies and time-frames, just as in looking at his patients’ self-made mandalas, Jung endeavored to open and build up a language, or code, the codes of which would be colors. He looked too speculative chemistry to additional his comprehension of the mysterious language of color, tracking down the way into his examination in catalytic change. His work has verifiably educated the cutting-edge field regarding color brain science.

Various colors are seen to mean various things. For instance, tones of red lead to sensations of excitement while blue tones are frequently connected with sensations of unwinding. Both of these feelings are charming, thus, hence, the actual colors can get good emotions in commercials.

Blue: Security, Trust Worthy, Stability, Loyalty, Wisdom, Confidence, Trust, Friendliness, Preservation, Courage, Science. 

Black: Powerful, Mysterious, Elegance, Sophistication, Functionality

Green: Wealth, Money, Calming, Trees, Ambition, Endurance, Healing, Calm, Generosity, Natural, Completion, and Protection. 

Red: Energy, Power, Vigor, Leadership, Courage, Passion, Activity, Joy. 

Yellow: Optimism, Childish, Freshness, Law, Education, Arrogance. 

Pink: Romantic, Feminine, Love, Beauty. 

Orange: Cheerful, Passion, Pleasure, Enthusiasm, Fascination, Creativity, Fun. 

In visual expressions, color theory is a group of viable directions to color blending and the enhanced visualizations of a particular color mix. There are additional definitions (or classes) of colors dependent on the color wheel: essential color, optional color, and tertiary color. Despite the fact that color theory standards first showed up in quite a while of Leone Battista Alberti (c. 1435) and the scratchpad of Leonardo da Vinci (c. 1490), a practice of “color theory” started in the eighteenth century, at first inside a hardliner contention over Isaac Newton’s theory of color (Opticks, 1704) and the idea of essential colors. From that point, it created as an autonomous imaginative practice with just shallow reference to colorimetry and vision science. The reason for color theory range from renaissance compelling artwork to present-day business promotion. Colors influence our temperament and insight. Color theory isn’t new yet besides found in old customs. The color was referenced ordinarily in the old book of scriptures and each color has its particular definition and interpretation.